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By Hermann Hunger, David Pingree

Astronomy and astrology, or the astral sciences, performed a big, if now not key position within the political and spiritual lifetime of the traditional close to East, and of the Greek and Roman global. this article offers a complete account of the origins of the astral sciences within the historic close to East. all sorts of Sumerian or Akkadian textual content facing descriptive or mathematical astronomy, together with many person capsules are completely handled. It additionally good points descriptions of astronomical contents, a proof in their medical which means, and where a given style or pill has within the improvement of astronomy either in the Mesopotamian tradition and out of doors of it.

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17-19, and back in van der Waerden [1954] pp. 21-22. Sachs [1955] recommended that ASTRONOMY fifty three BM 34713 (LBAT 1499; reproduction on p. 233) used to be a big resource for Pinches in developing his "Astrolabe". Weidner [1967] p. 19 fn. 60, at the foundation of correspondence among Pinches and F. Hommel, asserts that Pinches used the capsule 85-4-30,15 and an unnumbered textual content containing motives (see presently), yet now not LB AT 1499, which inspires "kaum lösbare Fragen". He then mentions duplicates to the omens contained in LBAT 1499. regrettably, 85-4-30,15 isn't a reproduction of the "Astrolabe" texts, in order that Weidner should have been unsuitable right here. LBAT 1499 is a past due Babylonian reproduction starting with an inventory which suffers from a massive mistake: the second one and 3rd columns of numbers and constellation-names are shifted through one line so they don't healthy the entries within the fust column. The opposite, strains 10-30, supplies the rising-times of the dodecatemoria of Aries and a part of Taurus; see II C l. ld. Walker-Hunger [1977] edit a pill, BM 82923, most likely copied within the moment 1/2 the fust millennium B. C. , that Pinches turns out to have used for the "explanations" quoted via him. In Reiner-Pingree [1981] p. three it was once mentioned that the institutions of constellations and planets (for they're integrated within the "Astrolabe" lists) with the best months of the 12 months and with the trails of Enlil, Anu, and Ea are stimulated by way of mythological up to by means of astronomical concerns; makes an attempt to spot those constellation and planet names with stars that experience their heliacal emerging within the perfect months are, for this reason, with out persuasive strength. hence, the "Pinches' Astrolabe" pills appear to keep on with "Astrolabe B" which dates from ca. -1100 if no longer prior to; and the "Pinches' Astrolabe" is older than -700 on account that Sm 162 used to be copied by means of Nabû-zuqup-kēnu, a scribe who used to be energetic in the course of the reigns of Sargon II (-720 to -704) and Sennacherib (-703 to -680). For the constellation names see the record in die Appendix. The weights of water shape 3 linear zigzag services; the values within the center ring of the round shape (Path of Anu) are 1/2 these within the outer ring (Path of Enlil), these within the internal ring (Patìi of Ea) are half these within the heart ring. The parameters of the outer ring are: m = 2 mina (Kislimu) Μ = four mina (Simānu) d = 0;20 mina μ = three mina (Addaru and U1ū1u) Ρ = yr. This scheme is similar with that during die outdated Babylonian textual content pointed out on the finish of II A 1. four. That it endured to be copied, even mistakenly, till the past due Babylonian interval attests to the extraordinary conservatism of a few Mesopotamian scribes. The opposite of Sm 162 appears to be like regarding the customarily mentioned "Hilprecht textual content" (formerly HS 229, now HS 245); see Horowitz [1993]. The 54 bankruptcy "Hilprecht textual content" is a center Babylonian pill from Nippur, that could be copied from an outdated Babylonian unique. It supplies a listing of numbers representing the distances among the Moon and 7 stars: 19 Moon to Stars 17 Stars to actual Shepherd of Anu 14 precise Shepherd of Anu to Arrow eleven Arrow to Yoke nine Yoke to ŠU.

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